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CVC [CoviCoin] Token

About CVC

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Token 13 months
CoinMarketCap 11 months
white paper

CoviCoin is the brainchild of a diverse team that comprises individuals from different parts of the globe. Each member comes equipped with his or her own unique expertise in the areas of blockchain, finance, healthcare and marketing.

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Laser Scorebeta Last Audit: 30 November 2021

report
Token is either risky or in presale. For presale 30+ is a fine score.

CoviCoin.swapBack() (#593-659) sends eth to arbitrary user
Dangerous calls:
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
Ensure that an arbitrary user cannot withdraw unauthorized funds.

Additional information: link

Reentrancy in CoviCoin._transferFrom(address,address,uint256) (#522-547):
External calls:
- swapBack() (#528)
- router.swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens(amountToLiquify,0,path,address(this),block.timestamp) (#604-610)
- router.addLiquidityETH{value: amountBNB}(address(this),amountToLiquify,0,0,autoLiquidityReceiver,block.timestamp) (#614-621)
- router.swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens(amountToSwap,0,path_scope_0,address(this),block.timestamp) (#633-639)
- distributor.deposit{value: amountBNBReflection}() (#649)
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
- triggerAutoBuyback() (#529)
- router.swapExactETHForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens{value: amount}(0,path,to,block.timestamp) (#694-699)
External calls sending eth:
- swapBack() (#528)
- router.addLiquidityETH{value: amountBNB}(address(this),amountToLiquify,0,0,autoLiquidityReceiver,block.timestamp) (#614-621)
- distributor.deposit{value: amountBNBReflection}() (#649)
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
- triggerAutoBuyback() (#529)
- router.swapExactETHForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens{value: amount}(0,path,to,block.timestamp) (#694-699)
State variables written after the call(s):
- _balances[sender] = _balances[sender].sub(amount,Insufficient Balance) (#533)
- _balances[recipient] = _balances[recipient].add(amountReceived) (#536)
- amountReceived = takeFee(sender,recipient,amount) (#535)
- _balances[address(this)] = _balances[address(this)].add(feeAmount) (#576)
- triggerAutoBuyback() (#529)
- inSwap = true (#468)
- inSwap = false (#468)
- launch() (#531)
- launchedAt = block.number (#717)
- amountReceived = takeFee(sender,recipient,amount) (#535)
- liquidityFeeAccumulator = liquidityFeeAccumulator.add(feeAmount.mul(liquidityFee).div(totalFee.add(liquidityFee))) (#580)
Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Additional information: link

DividendDistributor.distributeDividend(address) (#350-363) ignores return value by BUSD.transfer(shareholder,amount) (#356)
Use SafeERC20, or ensure that the transfer/transferFrom return value is checked.

Additional information: link


Unable to verify that contract auditor is trusted: Certik, Quantstamp, Hacken, Solidity, Paladinsec, Openzeppelin, Verichains


Combination 1: Reentrancy vulnerabilities + Functions that send Ether to arbitraty destination. Usual for scams. May be justified by some complex mechanics (e.g. rebase, reflections). DYOR & manual audit are advised.


Combination 2: Unchecked transfer + Functions that send Ether to arbitraty destination. Usual for scams. May be justified by some complex mechanics (e.g. rebase, reflections). DYOR & manual audit are advised.


Combination 3: Reentrancy vulnerabilities + Unchecked transfer vulnerability. Usual for scams. May be justified by some complex mechanics (e.g. rebase, reflections). DYOR & manual audit are advised.

CoviCoin.takeFee(address,address,uint256) (#573-584) performs a multiplication on the result of a division:
-feeAmount = amount.mul(getTotalFee(receiver == pair)).div(feeDenominator) (#574)
-liquidityFeeAccumulator = liquidityFeeAccumulator.add(feeAmount.mul(liquidityFee).div(totalFee.add(liquidityFee))) (#580)
Consider ordering multiplication before division.

Additional information: link

Reentrancy in DividendDistributor.setShare(address,uint256) (#277-291):
External calls:
- distributeDividend(shareholder) (#278)
- BUSD.transfer(shareholder,amount) (#356)
State variables written after the call(s):
- shares[shareholder].amount = amount (#287)
- shares[shareholder].totalExcluded = getCumulativeDividends(shares[shareholder].amount) (#288)
Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Additional information: link

CoviCoin.swapBack() (#593-659) ignores return value by router.addLiquidityETH{value: amountBNB}(address(this),amountToLiquify,0,0,autoLiquidityReceiver,block.timestamp) (#614-621)
Ensure that all the return values of the function calls are used.

Additional information: link

CoviCoin.setFeeReceivers(address,address,address)._charityWallet (#775) lacks a zero-check on :
- charityWallet = _charityWallet (#778)
Check that the address is not zero.

Additional information: link

Reentrancy in CoviCoin.triggerAutoBuyback() (#682-687):
External calls:
- buyTokens(autoBuybackAmount,DEAD) (#683)
- router.swapExactETHForTokensSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens{value: amount}(0,path,to,block.timestamp) (#694-699)
State variables written after the call(s):
- autoBuybackAccumulator = autoBuybackAccumulator.add(autoBuybackAmount) (#685)
- autoBuybackBlockLast = block.number (#684)
- autoBuybackEnabled = false (#686)
Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Additional information: link

Reentrancy in CoviCoin.swapBack() (#593-659):
External calls:
- router.swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens(amountToSwap,0,path_scope_0,address(this),block.timestamp) (#633-639)
- distributor.deposit{value: amountBNBReflection}() (#649)
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
External calls sending eth:
- distributor.deposit{value: amountBNBReflection}() (#649)
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
Event emitted after the call(s):
- SwapBack(amountToSwap,amountBNB_scope_2) (#657)
Apply the check-effects-interactions pattern.

Additional information: link

DividendDistributor.shouldDistribute(address) (#345-348) uses timestamp for comparisons
Dangerous comparisons:
- shareholderClaims[shareholder] + minPeriod < block.timestamp && getUnpaidEarnings(shareholder) > minDistribution (#346-347)
Avoid relying on block.timestamp.

Additional information: link

DividendDistributor.process(uint256) (#315-343) has costly operations inside a loop:
- currentIndex ++ (#338)
Use a local variable to hold the loop computation result.

Additional information: link

CoviCoin.swapThreshold (#465) is set pre-construction with a non-constant function or state variable:
- _totalSupply / 4000
Remove any initialization of state variables via non-constant state variables or function calls. If variables must be set upon contract deployment, locate initialization in the constructor instead.

Additional information: link

Pragma version^0.7.4 (#3) allows old versions
Deploy with any of the following Solidity versions: 0.5.16 - 0.5.17, 0.6.11 - 0.6.12, 0.7.5 - 0.7.6 Use a simple pragma version that allows any of these versions. Consider using the latest version of Solidity for testing.

Additional information: link

Low level call in CoviCoin.swapBack() (#593-659):
- (success) = address(expenseWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBMarketing}() (#651)
- (success,None) = address(charityWallet).call{gas: 30000,value: amountBNBCharity}() (#654)
Avoid low-level calls. Check the call success. If the call is meant for a contract, check for code existence

Additional information: link

Variable CoviCoin._allowances (#421) is not in mixedCase
Follow the Solidity naming convention.

Additional information: link

Variable CoviCoin.setFees(bool,uint256,uint256,uint256,uint256,uint256,uint256)._marketingFee (#754) is too similar to CoviCoin.marketingFees (#443)
Prevent variables from having similar names.

Additional information: link

CoviCoin.slitherConstructorVariables() (#406-861) uses literals with too many digits:
- distributorGas = 500000 (#462)
Use: Ether suffix, Time suffix, or The scientific notation

Additional information: link

CoviCoin.BUSD (#409) is never used in CoviCoin (#406-861)
Remove unused state variables.

Additional information: link

DividendDistributor.dividendsPerShareAccuracyFactor (#236) should be constant
Add the constant attributes to state variables that never change.

Additional information: link

balanceOf(address) should be declared external:
- CoviCoin.balanceOf(address) (#497)
Use the external attribute for functions never called from the contract.

Additional information: link

Holders:


Average 30d PancakeSwap volume is low.


Average PancakeSwap trading volume, liqudity, number of swaps are low. Token seems to be inactive.


Token is deployed only at one blockchain


Token has only one trading pair


Unable to find PancakeSwap trading pair to compute liquidity.


Unable to find PancakeSwap trading pair to compute number of swaps.


Twitter account link seems to be invalid


Unable to find Discord account


BscScan page for the token does not contain additional info: website, socials, description, etc.

Additional information: link


Unable to find whitepaper link on the website


Unable to find code repository for the project


Young tokens have high risks of scam / price dump / death


Young tokens have high risks of scam / price dump / death


Young tokens have high risks of price dump / death


Young tokens have high risks of price dump / death


Token has relatively low CoinGecko rank


Token has relatively low CoinMarketCap rank

Price for CVC